• Support a transition to a net-zero emissions economy • Avoidance of lock-in to technologies which do not support the transition to a net-zero emissions economy • Ensure that economic activities meet best practice standards • Ensure equal comparability within an economic activity with regards to achieving net-zero emissions economy target • Where necessary, incorporating technology-specific considerations into secondary metrics and thresholds
Metric and threshold:
An over-arching, technology-agnostic emissions threshold of 100g CO2e / kWh is proposed for the electricity generation. This threshold will be reduced every 5 years in line with a trajectory to net-zero CO2e in 2050.
The main potential significant harm to other environmental objectives from Production of electric energy from high-enthalpy geothermal system is associated with: • Non-condensable geothermal gases with specific environmental threats, such as H2S, CO2, and CH4, are often released from flash-steam and dry-steam power plants. Binary plants ideally represent closed systems and no steam is emitted. • Possible emissions to surface and underground water
• Refer to the screening criteria for DNSH to climate change adaptation.
• Identify and manage risks related to water quality and/or water consumption at the appropriate level. Ensure that water use/conservation management plans, developed in consultation with relevant stakeholders, have been developed and implemented. • In the EU, fulfil the requirements of EU water legislation.
Based on legislation:
General reference to EU legislation
Discharges to water bodies should comply with individual license conditions for specific operations, where applicable, and/or national threshold values in line with the EU regulatory framework (i.e. EU Water Framework Directive1 and Daughter Directives). Emissions to air: the operations of high-enthalpy geothermal energy systems should ensure that adequate abatement systems are in place to comply with existing EU Air Quality Legislation and BAT ; including but not limited to <1 μg/Nm3 Hg. Thermal anomalies associated with the discharge of waste heat should not exceed 3°K for groundwater environments or 1.5°K for surface water environments, respectively.
Based on legislation:
EU Water Framework Directive & general reference to other EU legislations
Ensure an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been completed in accordance with the EU Directives on Environmental Impact Assessment (2014/52/EU) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (2001/42/EC) or in the case of activities located in non-EU countries other equivalent national provisions or international standards for activities in non-EU countries (e.g. IFC Performance Standard 1: Assessment and Management of Environmental and Social Risks) – including ancillary services, e.g. transport infrastructure and operations). Ensure any required mitigation measures for protecting biodiversity/eco-systems have been implemented. For sites/operations located in or near to biodiversity-sensitive areas (including the Natura 2000 network of protected areas, UNESCO World Heritage sites and Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), as well as other protected areas), ensure that an appropriate assessment has been conducted in compliance with the provisions of the EU Biodiversity Strategy (COM (2011) 244), the Birds (2009/147/EC) and Habitats (92/43/EEC) Directives or in the case of activities located in non-EU countries, other equivalent national provisions or international standards (e.g. IFC Performance Standard 6: Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Living Natural Resources) – based on the conservation objectives of the protected area. For such sites/operations, ensure that: • a site-level biodiversity management plan exists and is implemented in alignment with the IFC Performance Standard 6: Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Living Natural Resources; • all necessary mitigation measures are in place to reduce the impacts on species and habitats; and • a robust, appropriately designed and long-term biodiversity monitoring and evaluation programme exists and is implemented.
Based on legislation:
Directives on Environmental Impact Assessment (2014/52/EU) Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive Birds Directive Habitats Directive